Ideas for doing research on Pump as Turbine

The topic of Pump as turbine is not new but recently due to the advent of different soft-computation technologies and growing demand for electricity has opened the scope and increased the interest of research in this topic. Most of the recent studies deal with optimization of performance and/or hydraulic efficiency of pump as turbine,environmental benefits,numerical simulation of cavitating flow,application in high rise buildings,identification of unstable region,CFD simulation,hydraulic transient analysis,effect of misaligned guide vanes etc. Fuzzy logic was widely used as a soft computation technique to achieve the study objectives. Below are some of the areas under Pump as Turbine where further research may yield useful and novel results.

  1. Impact of climate change on Pump as Turbines(PAT).
  2. Location selection for installation of PAT based hydro-power plant.
  3. CFD Analysis of Pump turbine for identification of unstable regions under different demand scenario
  4. Impact of climate change on fluid flow and cavitation in Pump as turbine systems
  5. Selection of ideal pump and turbine combination for development of a pump – turbine based power plants
  6. Minimization of water and energy use of water systems by installation of pump turbine schemes.
  7. Impact analysis of misaligned blades on performance efficiency of pump-turbine systems.
  8. Indicator based system identification of clearance flow and load rejection,
  9. Selection of renewable energy systems in hilly regions
  10. Impact of conveyance efficiency on loss due to PAT.

Different soft computation techniques can easily be used for achieving objective  of PAT and if possible an experimental set up to establish/validate the data may be installed.

In recent times validation of data has become an important issue for getting acceptance.However,the ten topics above requires in-depth research,analysis and novel synthesis.

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Papers on Pump as Turbine published from Springer Publisher in 2018

In 2017-2018,1073 articles, 1251 book chapters and 241 conference papers were published from Springer Publishers on the topic of “Pump as Turbine”. In 2018 following four papers were published on this topic from Springer Publishers.

  1. Analysis of transient flow in a pump-turbine during the load rejection process,Xiaolong Fu, Deyou Li, Hongjie Wang… in Journal of Mechanical Science and Technolo… (2018)

2. Experimental investigations of a prototype reversible pump turbine in generating mode with water head variations,JinWei Li, YuNing Zhang, JiXing Yu in Science China Technological Sciences (2018)

3. Analysis of the vortices in the inner flow of reversible pump turbine with the new omega vortex identification method,Yu-ning Zhang, Kai-hua Liu, Jin-wei Li … in Journal of Hydrodynamics (2018)

4. Dynamic instability of a pump-turbine in load rejection transient process,XiaoLong Fu, DeYou Li, HongJie Wang, GuangHui Zhang… in Science China Technological Sciences (2018).

The number of documents related to this topic published from Springer Publisher in 2016-17,2015-16,2014-15 and 2013-14 was found to be 1264,1159,1068 and 979 articles respectively. The trend indicates increased interest of research on this topic.

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Five Latest Papers Published from Elsevier on Pump as Turbine

In 2018 , total 2936 numbers of paper was published from Science Direct or Elsevier Publisher on the topic of “Pump as Turbine”. In 1995 the total number of publication from Elsevier on the same topic was 922. Although, there is a reduction of number of papers published in 2018 compared to 2017 (4349),a steady increase was observed from 2006(1080) to 2017 which depicts a constant increase of research in this field. Below are the five latest papers on Pump as Turbine which was published in 2018 from Elsevier Publishers.

  1. Pumps as turbines for efficient energy recovery in water supply networks,Research article
    Renewable Energy, Volume 122, July 2018, Pages 17-25
    M. Kramer, K. Terheiden, S. Wieprecht
  2. Cavitation behavior study in the pump mode of a reversible pump-turbine,Research article
    Renewable Energy, Volume 125, September 2018, Pages 655-667,Ran Tao, Ruofu Xiao, Fujun Wang, Weichao Liu
  3. A general methodology for performance prediction of pumps-as-turbines using Artificial Neural Networks,Research article
    Renewable Energy, Volume 128, Part A, December 2018, Pages 265-274
    Mosè Rossi, Massimiliano Renzi
  4. Unstable behaviour of pump-turbines and its effects on power regulation capacity of pumped-hydro energy storage plants,Review article
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 94, October 2018, Pages 399-409
    Giovanna Cavazzini, Jean-Bernard Houdeline, Giorgio Pavesi, Olivier Teller, Guido Ardizzon
  5. Experimental study of viscosity effects on a pump as turbine performance,Research article
    Renewable Energy, Volume 127, November 2018, Pages 539-547
    Sina Abazariyan, Roohollah Rafee, Shahram Derakhshan

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Case Study : Limmern pumped storage plant

The above video shows a case study of Limmern Pumped Storage Plant which will use two lakes; Lake Limmern and Lake Mutt, where former is lower by 630 m with respect to the latter. This plant is developed by Axpo ( and the video is created by them.

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Fengning Pumped-Storage Plant : largest Pumped-storage power station in the world

The video above showed the case study of Fengning Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant which have a capability of 3.6GW, and is the largest Pumped-storage power station in the world. This video is prepared by “Chinese bridge”.

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How to generate electricity from pump as turbine ?

The video below is a nice introduction about the concept of Pump as Turbine. A Francis turbine and a pump is used for generating electricity in daytime and lifting water from the river in night-time. This video is prepared by mekanizmalar and can also be found at :

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Focus of Fortnight : Pump as Turbine

Pump as Turbine is a new concept of using kinetic energy in water for generation of electrical energy. In this concept, a pump is used as turbine when demand for electricity is high (peak time) and during off peak pump is used as a pump to lift the water from a lower elevation to higher elevation.

This concept help to save energy by using the same water for generating electricity. Although due to the conveyance loss, water is required to be replenished time to time, but still this type of process, conserve more water compared to that in conventional hydro-power plant.

This fortnight the theme issue is decided to be “Pump as turbine”.The concept will be introduced in detail, by videos shared by experts ,some papers and some links from this field. Few important and exquisite textbooks,tutorials,monographs and software which are used in this industry will also be shared in this issue of the web-zine.

In addition to this the regular topics of the website is also available.

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Ideas for doing research in Salinity Gradient Based Power Plants

Power generation from Salinity Gradient is a new topic of research which is steadily attracting interest from the researchers of renewable energy. The scarcity and rising demand of conventional fuels has also aggrevated the importance of alternative sources of energy where power from salinity gradient or Blue Energy can be an useful solution.

As the topic is new and mostly unexplored,doing research in this aspect have a very high potential. Research ideas like :

1) Cost Minimization of Power Extraction from Saline Water Gradient based Power Plants by Nature Based Optimization Techniques

The first objective of the work will be to identify parameter/s which contribute towards the total expenditure for installation of Salinity Gradient based power plants.After all the parameters were identified and the significance of the weights of the parameters are determined the next step will be to formulate the indicator in such a manner that it become directly proportional to the expenditure for operation and maintenance of salinity gradient based power plants.The second objective will be to implement nature based optimization algorithms like Ant Colony,Artificial Bee Hive etc to minimize the cost function.The significance of the parameters can be estimated by the application of Multi Criteria Decision Making methods(MCDM) and the nature based optimization techniques can be used for minimization of the function.The result of the optimization will yield the ratio at which the significant parameters must behave to produce minimum expenditure to run a saline water based power plant.

2)Estimation of Power Potential from Saline Water Gradient in European/Asian/American Coastal regions : A Polynomial Neural Network Approach

Polynomial Neural Networks are an advanced form of neural network which can self-detect the number of inputs and hidden layers, required for prediction of the most accurate output.The Group Method of Data Handling(GMDH) is a technique by which polynomial neural networks(PNN) are trained where it analyse hundreds of different training algorithms and identify the best algorithm automatically with the help of a fitness function.This kind of technologies can be implemented to estimate the power potential from saline water gradient in various locations of different continents.An iso-hyetal map can be produced from the predictions so that the location with highest potential can be easily delineated.

3)Location selection for installation of Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)/Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)/Hydrocratic Ocean Energy based Salinity Gradient Power plants with the help of MCDM-GMDH or MCDM or GMDH.

MCDMs are an objective procedure to identify the better option among the many available alternatives.GMDH is a technique for training PNNs.This two technologies can be applied to identify locations with higher feasibility among multiple locations selected for installation of Saline Water based power plants.At first the parameters which can select the plausible locations can be identified and then with the help of a function the locations with highest potentiality can be selected.The function will be a product function of the selected parameters and its significance in detecting suitable locations.For different kind of saline water based power generation units(such as Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)/Reverse Electrodialysis (RED)/Hydrocratic Ocean Energy) different features will be selected and the significance of the featuress will also change.The calculation of significance will be executed with the help of MCDM methods and function will be predicted with the help of GMDH based PNNs.

…can attract project funds as well as may help to publish research articles in reputed journals.As a pioneer, citations for such research will be high compared to that for other conventional topics of renewable energy.

Blue Energy : Salinity Gradient for electricity production

A relatively new kind(discovered in 1970, however, major developments in this type of renewable energy can be seen mainly in the last decade) of renewable energy source was identified where electricity is generated when fresh water mixes with saline water.

This fort nigh let us gather various information about this type of energy. Any thing you know about this energy can be shared as a reply to this post.

Water to Energy