Category Archives: Focus of Fortnight

Development of indicator based real time pen-stock condition monitoring system by the application of Geographical Information Systems(GIS) and Cognitive tools

The GIS based condition monitoring systems can be developed to monitor the vital parameters of pen-stock networks which is used in hydro power plants to carry water from the source to the power house for generation of energy. The plant efficiency is often compromised due to the reduction of conveyance efficiency of the pen-stock network. The reason for this decrease can be attributed to the diminution in the depth to width ration or increase in roughness coefficient due to sedimentation or increase in infiltration due to erosion of the channel bed.The problem if remains undetected can cause a detrimental effect on utilization efficiency of the power plant which will result in wastage of resource and increase in operating cost of the plant.

Scientific Benefits that can be achieved from the results of the study:

The condition, load or flow rate etc. in a pen-stock can be monitored real time if the digitized shape files and its attribute tables can be connected to a set of sensors which can measure and send the status of the vital parameters, important for condition monitoring of the pen-stocks in large scale hydro-power plants. The portability of the monitoring system is another reason for installation of such real-time monitoring systems. A GIS map can be used in any type of device if the map-codes are generated in platform independent languages like Java etc. Most of the tools used for GIS nowadays offer such features in their digitization module. From the digitized maps,the power plant will be enable to identify vulnerable points and erroneous portions which can be rectified by adopting to required mitigation measures.

Prerequisite :

1.Knowledge of any open source GIS Software like Diva GIS or Q-GIS

Knowledge of any Cognitive Modeling Technique like Artificial Neural Networks/ Polynomial Neural Networks/ Nature Based Prediction Techniques like Particle Swarm Optimization (A tutorial by Petrakis.S) , Ant Colony (A tutorial by Majumder.J) etc.

2.Basic terminology of GIS

3.Knowledge of Open Channel Flow Equations (A 63 page Tutorial by Web Kit) / Flow equations by the author of this article

Related Papers/Monographs

Saraf, Arun K., and Arun Kumar. “GIS in small hydro planning resource management.” GIS@ development (1997): 30-37.

Buchun, W. Y. G. Z. L., & Ming, L. M. L. (2010). Automatic Collecting System of Agro-meteorology Information Based on Remote Monitoring Technique [J]. Transactions of the Chinese Society for Agricultural Machinery, 10.

Related Journals

International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER) is indexed by Thomson Reuters, Emerging Sources Citation Index on Web of Science on 29/10/2015.

About the Journal as taken from their home page:

“The International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER) seeks to promote and disseminate knowledge of the various topics and technologies of renewable (green) energy resources. The journal aims to present to the international community important results of work in the fields of renewable energy research, development.

International Journal of Energy and Informatics

About the Journal

This journal is edited by the author of this idea and publishes various works where informatics tools and techniques are applied to solve problems in energy production,conservation and management.

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Research Idea : Maximization of Conversion Efficiency of Attenuator type Wave Energy Converters by Nature Based Optimization Techniques

Wave Energy Converters are utilized to generate electrical energy from ocean wave energy. But due to the low efficiency and high cost such type of power plants are utilized for energy production in very few areas of the World. The conversion potential depend on wave height,period and depth of ocean.Higher the parameters higher will be the potential.However due to the absence of efficient and inexpensive converters,wide scale implementation of wave energy based power plants are not observed.This present idea attempt to optimize the efficiency of Attenuator type Wave Energy Converters and minimize the cost to produce an optimal configuration which will have high conversion efficiency within minimum cost.In this aspect the different nature based optimization techniques like Particle Swarm Optimization,Generic Algorithm or Polynomial Neural Networks etc. can be applied simultaneously to identify the best result from the techniques.Download the link below for the complete idea :


An example of Attenuator type wave energy converter : Pelamis

Wave Energy Converter Tutorial:

Types of Wave Energy Device

A Review of Wave Energy Converter Technology

Books on Wave Energy Converter Technologies

Handbook of Ocean Wave Energy

Editors : Arthur PecherJens and Peter Kofoed; Publisher : Springer; Year of Publication : 2017

Ocean Wave Energy Conversion : 1st Edition

Author : Aurelien Babarit; Publisher : Elsevier; Year of Publication : 2017

Coming Soon : Tutorial on Particle Swarm Optimization and Genetic Algorithm

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Citation : Majumder,M,Research Idea : Maximization of Conversion Efficiency of Attenuator type Wave Energy Converters by Nature Based Optimization Techniques,Baipatra,Retrieved from on 06/11/2018.

Research Idea of this fortnight : Selection of Suitable Wave Converters for Shoreline Protection by Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method

Idea for doing research : Selection of Suitable Wave Converters for Shoreline Protection by Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method

Keywords : wave energy,multi criteria decision making methods,renewable energy,shore line protection

For whom ? Electrical, Mechanical and Civil Engineering scholars and PG students

Scientific Benefit : The uncontrolled extraction of natural resources and un-regulated utilization of coastal zones for commercial purposes have induced erosive action which has reduced the area of coastal zones in many parts of the World.In this aspect protection of shoreline is an important objective to achieve for the sustenance of the coastal zones and to maintain the ecosystem. On the other hand, due to the rising demand for energy and limited availability of conventional fuel resources, has increased the demand for supply of energy from renewable and alternative sources of energy.That is why,if on-shore wave converters which is used for conversion of wave energy to electrical energy, can be installed in the coastal areas, then these converters can be used for both protection of shoreline and producing energy. Such procedures are now implemented in few coastal regions but the selection of suitable wave converters and the ideal location where they can be installed for maximum utilization is limiting the benefit that can be achieved from such projects. Subjective selection of converters or location will result in less than desired level of protection and  production of energy. It will also increase the investment required for installation and operation of such arrangements. Thus research projects can be undertaken to solve this problem by utilizing objective techniques like Multi Criteria Decision Making(MCDM).

Brief Methodology : The multi criteria decision making processes requires a set of alternatives or options from which one has to be selected as the answer to the decision making problem. A set of criteria is also required by which the alternatives are compared and rated with the help of a scale and then based on the selected MCDM method, aggregated value of the ratings were calculated. The option with the maximum aggregated value (also known as : weight of significance/priority value), will be selected as the answer to the decision making problem.

In case of wave converter selection for shoreline protection and energy production on a particular location, some criteria has to be identified by which the available alternatives can be compared. As the objective of the present investigation is to select a converter which can be used on that location for maximum protection and production of energy from the waves,due to two number of objectives,  two level of criteria will be ideal for the present decision problem.

First level of criteria can  be shoreline protection and utilization efficiency that can be achieved from the converter on that location.

The second level criteria will be 1.Total Cost required for installation,operation and maintenance;2. stability of the soil;3.height of the wave;4.wave period;5.ocean depth and 6. wind speed.

The converters must be on-shore and oscillating column type as such kind of converters has a stable mooring structure which is required for shoreline protection. The type of converters will be used as the alternatives.

The Second level criteria will be compared with respect to the first level criteria and the alternatives will be compared with respect to the second level criteria.

After the criteria and alternatives are selected, next step is to identify a MCDM method which can be effectively used for this kind of decision making problems. Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) can be a good method as the present problem consist complexity and AHP is known to be ideal for such kind of problems.

The criteria and alternative selected here is based on the opinion of the author of this post.However,other criteria can be used and it will definitely vary with respect to the decision maker.

Short tutorial : How to find the best wave converter for shore line protection by the AHP MCDM method ?

Apps : For application of AHP in any type of similar decision making problem (Coming soon).

Book/Papers/Reports to learn more :

About Wave Energy Converters : Hosna Titah-Benbouzid, Mohamed Benbouzid. An Up-to-Date Technologies Review and Evaluation of
2015, 10 (1), pp.52-61.

2. Wave energy converters

About MCDM and AHP : 1. Multi-Criteria Decision Making method

2.Multi-Criteria Decision Making: An Operations Research approach

3.Triantaphyllou E. (2000) Multi-Criteria Decision Making Methods. In: Multi-criteria Decision Making Methods: A Comparative Study. Applied Optimization, vol 44. Springer, Boston, MA.

Software you can use 

For AHP decision making : 1. MakeItRational is a decision support software based on Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP is a method of multi-criteria evaluation which organizes and simplifies decision-making. Use MakeItRational software for supporting complex and tough decisions; 2. The Super Decisions is decision support software that implements the AHP and ANP. The Analytic Hierarchical Process (AHP) and the Analytic Network Process (ANP) make it possible to include intangibles in decision making.

Similar Papers

The difference between the following papers and the present idea is all these papers uses a subjective approach whereas the present idea tried to utilize objective method like MCDM to solve the problem.

Zanuttigh, B., L. Martinelli, M. Castagnetti, P. Ruol, Jens Peter Kofoed, and Peter Frigaard. “Integration of wave energy converters into coastal protection schemes.” Proc ICOE (2010).

Bergillos, Rafael J., Alejandro Lopez-Ruiz, Encarnacion Medina-Lopez, Antonio Monino, and Miguel Ortega-Sanchez. “The role of wave energy converter farms on coastal protection in eroding deltas, Guadalfeo, southern Spain.” Journal of Cleaner Production 171 (2018): 356-367.

Call for Paper related to present research idea:

MonographClimate change and its impact on Water and Energy Management : MCDM and ANN Approaches edited by M.Majumder and G.D.Kale.Proposed to be published from Springer. Please reply to this post or contact us if you are interested to submit one of your paper in this book.

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Please acknowledge or cite this idea when you use it for your project and reply to this post or contact us if you want to claim .

Citation : Majumder,M,Research Idea : Selection of Suitable Wave Converters for Shoreline Protection by Multi-Criteria Decision Making Method,Baipatra,Retrieved from on 16/09/2018.


Ideas for doing research on Pump as Turbine

The topic of Pump as turbine is not new but recently due to the advent of different soft-computation technologies and growing demand for electricity has opened the scope and increased the interest of research in this topic. Most of the recent studies deal with optimization of performance and/or hydraulic efficiency of pump as turbine,environmental benefits,numerical simulation of cavitating flow,application in high rise buildings,identification of unstable region,CFD simulation,hydraulic transient analysis,effect of misaligned guide vanes etc. Fuzzy logic was widely used as a soft computation technique to achieve the study objectives. Below are some of the areas under Pump as Turbine where further research may yield useful and novel results.

  1. Impact of climate change on Pump as Turbines(PAT).
  2. Location selection for installation of PAT based hydro-power plant.
  3. CFD Analysis of Pump turbine for identification of unstable regions under different demand scenario
  4. Impact of climate change on fluid flow and cavitation in Pump as turbine systems
  5. Selection of ideal pump and turbine combination for development of a pump – turbine based power plants
  6. Minimization of water and energy use of water systems by installation of pump turbine schemes.
  7. Impact analysis of misaligned blades on performance efficiency of pump-turbine systems.
  8. Indicator based system identification of clearance flow and load rejection,
  9. Selection of renewable energy systems in hilly regions
  10. Impact of conveyance efficiency on loss due to PAT.

Different soft computation techniques can easily be used for achieving objective  of PAT and if possible an experimental set up to establish/validate the data may be installed.

In recent times validation of data has become an important issue for getting acceptance.However,the ten topics above requires in-depth research,analysis and novel synthesis.

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Papers on Pump as Turbine published from Springer Publisher in 2018

In 2017-2018,1073 articles, 1251 book chapters and 241 conference papers were published from Springer Publishers on the topic of “Pump as Turbine”. In 2018 following four papers were published on this topic from Springer Publishers.

  1. Analysis of transient flow in a pump-turbine during the load rejection process,Xiaolong Fu, Deyou Li, Hongjie Wang… in Journal of Mechanical Science and Technolo… (2018)

2. Experimental investigations of a prototype reversible pump turbine in generating mode with water head variations,JinWei Li, YuNing Zhang, JiXing Yu in Science China Technological Sciences (2018)

3. Analysis of the vortices in the inner flow of reversible pump turbine with the new omega vortex identification method,Yu-ning Zhang, Kai-hua Liu, Jin-wei Li … in Journal of Hydrodynamics (2018)

4. Dynamic instability of a pump-turbine in load rejection transient process,XiaoLong Fu, DeYou Li, HongJie Wang, GuangHui Zhang… in Science China Technological Sciences (2018).

The number of documents related to this topic published from Springer Publisher in 2016-17,2015-16,2014-15 and 2013-14 was found to be 1264,1159,1068 and 979 articles respectively. The trend indicates increased interest of research on this topic.

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Five Latest Papers Published from Elsevier on Pump as Turbine

In 2018 , total 2936 numbers of paper was published from Science Direct or Elsevier Publisher on the topic of “Pump as Turbine”. In 1995 the total number of publication from Elsevier on the same topic was 922. Although, there is a reduction of number of papers published in 2018 compared to 2017 (4349),a steady increase was observed from 2006(1080) to 2017 which depicts a constant increase of research in this field. Below are the five latest papers on Pump as Turbine which was published in 2018 from Elsevier Publishers.

  1. Pumps as turbines for efficient energy recovery in water supply networks,Research article
    Renewable Energy, Volume 122, July 2018, Pages 17-25
    M. Kramer, K. Terheiden, S. Wieprecht
  2. Cavitation behavior study in the pump mode of a reversible pump-turbine,Research article
    Renewable Energy, Volume 125, September 2018, Pages 655-667,Ran Tao, Ruofu Xiao, Fujun Wang, Weichao Liu
  3. A general methodology for performance prediction of pumps-as-turbines using Artificial Neural Networks,Research article
    Renewable Energy, Volume 128, Part A, December 2018, Pages 265-274
    Mosè Rossi, Massimiliano Renzi
  4. Unstable behaviour of pump-turbines and its effects on power regulation capacity of pumped-hydro energy storage plants,Review article
    Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 94, October 2018, Pages 399-409
    Giovanna Cavazzini, Jean-Bernard Houdeline, Giorgio Pavesi, Olivier Teller, Guido Ardizzon
  5. Experimental study of viscosity effects on a pump as turbine performance,Research article
    Renewable Energy, Volume 127, November 2018, Pages 539-547
    Sina Abazariyan, Roohollah Rafee, Shahram Derakhshan

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Case Study : Limmern pumped storage plant

The above video shows a case study of Limmern Pumped Storage Plant which will use two lakes; Lake Limmern and Lake Mutt, where former is lower by 630 m with respect to the latter. This plant is developed by Axpo ( and the video is created by them.

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Fengning Pumped-Storage Plant : largest Pumped-storage power station in the world

The video above showed the case study of Fengning Pumped-storage hydroelectric power plant which have a capability of 3.6GW, and is the largest Pumped-storage power station in the world. This video is prepared by “Chinese bridge”.

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How to generate electricity from pump as turbine ?

The video below is a nice introduction about the concept of Pump as Turbine. A Francis turbine and a pump is used for generating electricity in daytime and lifting water from the river in night-time. This video is prepared by mekanizmalar and can also be found at :

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Focus of Fortnight : Pump as Turbine

Pump as Turbine is a new concept of using kinetic energy in water for generation of electrical energy. In this concept, a pump is used as turbine when demand for electricity is high (peak time) and during off peak pump is used as a pump to lift the water from a lower elevation to higher elevation.

This concept help to save energy by using the same water for generating electricity. Although due to the conveyance loss, water is required to be replenished time to time, but still this type of process, conserve more water compared to that in conventional hydro-power plant.

This fortnight the theme issue is decided to be “Pump as turbine”.The concept will be introduced in detail, by videos shared by experts ,some papers and some links from this field. Few important and exquisite textbooks,tutorials,monographs and software which are used in this industry will also be shared in this issue of the web-zine.

In addition to this the regular topics of the website is also available.

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